Posts Tagged ‘c++’

Politics And C++

Categories: C++ Tags: ,

Ain’t Gonna Do It – Ever

November 22, 2015 Leave a comment

Straight from the Bitcoin Core source code, which is written in C++ (of course!) and is observable for all the world to see (including federal reserve bankstas and other corrupt government fiat currency debasers), we have….


That’s it: no more than 21.0E14 “satoshis” will ever be minted in the Bitcoin world.

Well, you might smugly say, anybody could change the source code to jack up the “MAX_MONEY” and/or “COIN” compile-time constants and release the next update. Uh, yeah, but unless the thousands of BTC miners with peta-flops of hashing power invested in the bitcoin economy voluntarily choose to run the new “inflationary” code, tain’t gonna happen. And, since it would clearly be against their best interests to do so (because it is their money they’re dealing with and not “other people’s money” that they can leach off of) they ain’t gonna do it – ever.

Categories: bitcoin Tags: ,

Stack, Heap, Pool: The Prequel

October 7, 2015 Leave a comment

Out of the 1600+ posts I’ve written for this blog over the past 6 years, the “Stack, Heap, Pool” C++ post has gotten the most views out of the bunch. However, since I did not state my motive for writing the post, I think it caused some people to misinterpret the post’s intent. Thus, the purpose of this post is to close that gap of understanding by writing the intro to that post that I should have written. So, here goes…

The figure below shows a “target” entering, traversing, and exiting a pre-defined sensor coverage volume.


From a software perspective:

  1. A track data block that represents the real world target must be created upon detection and entry into the coverage volume.
  2. The track’s data must be maintained in memory and updated during its journey through the coverage volume. (Thus, the system is stateful at the application layer by necessity.)
  3. Since the data becomes stale and useless to system users after the target it represents leaves the coverage volume, the track data block must be destroyed upon exit (or some time thereafter).

Now imagine a system operating 24 X 7 with thousands of targets traversing through the coverage volume over time. If the third processing step (controlled garbage collection) is not performed continuously during runtime, then the system has a memory leak. At some point after bootup, the system will eventually come to a crawl as the software consumes all the internal RAM and starts thrashing from swapping virtual memory to/from off-processor, mechanical, disk storage.

In C++, there are two ways of dynamically creating/destroying objects during runtime:

  1. Allocating/deallocating objects directly from the heap using standard language facilities (new+delete (don’t do this unless you’re stuck in C++98/03 land!!!), std::make_shared, or, preferably, std::make_unique)
  2. Acquiring/releasing objects indirectly from the heap using a pool of memory that is pre-allocated from said heap every time the system boots up.

Since the object’s data fields must be initialized in both techniques, initialization time isn’t a factor in determining which method is “faster“. Finding a block of memory the size of a track object is the determining factor.


As the measurements I made in the “Stack, Heap, Pool” post have demonstrated, the pool “won” the performance duel over direct heap allocation in this case because it has the advantage that all of its entries are the exact same size of a track object. Since the heap is more general purpose than a pool, the use of an explicit or implicit “new” will generally make finding an appropriately sized chunk of memory in a potentially fragmented heap more time consuming than finding one in a finite, fixed-object-size, pool. However, the increased allocation speed that a pool provides over direct heap access comes with a cost. If the number of track objects pre-allocated on startup is less than the peak number of targets expected to be simultaneously present in the coverage volume at any one instant, then newly detected targets will be discarded because they can’t “fit” into the system – and that’s a really bad event when users are observing and directing traffic in the coverage volume. There is no such thing as a free lunch.


The Problem, The Culprits, The Hope

September 28, 2015 14 comments

The Problem

Bjarne Stroustrup’s keynote speech at CppCon 2015 was all about writing good C++11/14 code. Although “modern” C++ compilers have been in wide circulation for four years, Bjarne still sees:


I’m not an elite, C++ committee-worthy, programmer, but I can relate to Bjarne’s frustration. Some time ago, I stumbled upon this code during a code review:

class Thing{};
std::vector<Thing> things{};
const int NUM_THINGS{2000}; 
for(int i=0; i<NUM_THINGS; ++i) 
  things.push_back(*(new Thing{})); 

Upon seeing the naked “new“, I searched for a matching loop of “delete“s. Since I did not find one, I ran valgrind on the executable. Sure enough, valgrind found the memory leak. I flagged the code as having a memory leak and suggested this as a less error-prone substitution:

class Thing{};
std::vector<Thing> things{};
const int NUM_THINGS{2000}; 
for(int i=0; i<NUM_THINGS; ++i) 

Another programmer suggested an even better, loopless, alternative:

class Thing{};
std::vector<Thing> things{};
const int NUM_THINGS{2000}; 

Sadly, the author blew off the suggestions and said that he would add the loop of “delete“s to plug the memory leak.

The Culprits

A key culprit in keeping the nasty list of bad programming habits alive and kicking is that…

Confused, backwards-looking teaching is (still) a big problem – Bjarne Stroustrup

Perhaps an even more powerful force keeping the status quo in place is that some (many?) companies simply don’t invest in their employees. In the name of fierce competition and the never-ending quest to increase productivity (while keeping wages flat so that executive bonuses can be doled out for meeting arbitrary numbers), these 20th-century-thinking dinosaurs micro-manage their employees into cranking out code 8+ hours a day while expecting the workforce to improve on their own time.

The Hope

In an attempt to sincerely help the C++ community of over 4M programmers overcome these deeply ingrained, unsafe programming habits, Mr. Stroustrup’s whole talk was about introducing and explaining the “CPP Core Guidelines” (CGC) document and the “Guidelines Support Library” (GSL). In a powerful one-two punch, Herb Sutter followed up the next day with another keynote focused on the CGC/GSL.

The CGC is an open source repository currently available on GitHub. And as with all open source projects, it is a work in progress. The guidelines were hoisted onto GitHub to kickstart the transformation from obsolete to modern programming.

The guidelines are focused on relatively higher-level issues, such as interfaces, resource management, memory management, and concurrency. Such rules affect application architecture and library design. Following the rules will lead to code that is statically type safe, has no resource leaks, and catches many more programming logic errors than is common in code today. And it will run fast – you can afford to do things right. We are less concerned with low-level issues, such as naming conventions and indentation style. However, no topic that can help a programmer is out of bounds.

It’s a noble and great goal that Bjarne et al are striving for, but as the old saying goes, “you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink“. In the worst case, the water is there for the taking, but you can’t even find anyone to lead the horse to the oasis. Nevertheless, with the introduction of the CGC, we at least have a puddle of water in place. Over time, the open source community will grow this puddle into a lake.


Easier To Use, And More Expressive

August 20, 2015 15 comments

One of the goals for each evolutionary increment in C++ is to decrease the probability of an average programmer from making mistakes by supplanting “old style” features/idioms with new, easier to use, and more expressive alternatives. The following code sample attempts to show an example of this evolution from C++98/03 to C++11 to C++14.


In C++98/03, there were two ways of clearing out the set of inner vectors in the vector-of-vectors-of-doubles data structure encapsulated by MyClass. One could use a plain ole for-loop or the std::for_each() STL algorithm coupled with a remotely defined function object (ClearVecFunctor). I suspect that with the exception of clever language lawyers, blue collar programmers (like me) used the simple for-loop option because of its reduced verbosity and compactness of expression.

With the arrival of C++11 on the scene, two more options became available to programmers: the range-for loop, and the std::for_each() algorithm combined with an inline-defined lambda function. The range-for loop eliminated the chance of¬† “off-by-one” errors and the lambda function eliminated the inconvenience of having to write a remotely located functor class.

The ratification of the C++14 standard brought yet another convenient option to the table: the polymorphic lambda. By using auto in the lambda argument list, the programmer is relieved of the obligation to explicitly write out the full type name of the argument.

This example is just one of many evolutionary improvements incorporated into the language. Hopefully, C++17 will introduce many more.

Note: The code compiles with no warnings under gcc 4.9.2. However, as you can see in the image from the bug placed on line 41, the Eclipse CDT indexer has not caught up yet with the C++14 specification. Because auto is used in place of the explicit type name in the lambda argument list, the indexer cannot resolve the std::vector::clear() member function.

8/26/15 Update – As a result of reader code reviews provided in the comments section of this post, I’ve updated the code as follows:


8/29/15 Update – A Fix to the Line 27 begin-begin bug:


Categories: C++, C++11, C++14 Tags: , ,

Is It Safe?

Remember this classic torture scene in “Marathon Man“? D’oh! Is It Safe Now, suppose you had to create the representation of a message that simply aggregates several numerical measures into one data structure:

safe unsafe

Given no information other than the fact that some numerical computations must be performed on each individual target track attribute within your code, which implementation would you choose for your internal processing? The binary, type-safe, candidate, or the text, type-unsafe, option? If you chose the type-unsafe option, then you’d impose a performance penalty on your code every time you needed to perform a computation on your tracks. You’d have to deserialize and extract the individual track attribute(s) before implementing the computations:


If your application is required to send/receive track messages over a “wire” between processing nodes, then you’d need to choose some sort of serialization/deserialization protocol along with an over-the-wire message format. Even if you were to choose a text format (JSON, XML) for the wire, be sure to deserialize the input as soon as possible and serialize on output as late as possible. Otherwise you’ll impose an unnecessary performance hit on your code every time you have to numerically manipulate the fields in your message.


More generally….


Holier Than Thou

June 1, 2015 25 comments

Since C++ (by deliberate design) does not include a native garbage collector or memory compactor, programs that perform dynamic memory allocation and de-allocation (via explicit or implicit use of the “new” and “delete” operators) cause small “holes” to accumulate in the free store over time. I guess you can say that C++ is “holier than thou“. ūüė¶ Stroustrup Mem Holes Mind you, drilling holes in the free store is not the same as leaking memory. A memory leak is a programming bug that needs to be squashed. A fragmented free store is a “feature“. His holiness can become an issue only for loooong running C++ programs and/or programs that run on hardware with small RAM footprints. For those types of niche systems, the best, and perhaps only, practical options available for preventing any holes from accumulating in your briefs are to eliminate all deletes from the code:

  • Perform all of your dynamic memory allocations at once, during program initialization (global data – D’oh!), and only utilize the CPU stack during runtime for object creation/destruction.
  • If your application inherently requires post-initialization dynamic memory usage, then use pre-allocated, fixed size, unfragmentable, pools and stacks to acquire/release data buffers during runtime.

If your system maps into the “holes can freakin’ kill someone” category and you don’t bake those precautions into your software design, then the C++ runtime may toss a big, bad-ass, std::bad_alloc exception into your punch bowl and crash your party if it can’t find a contiguous memory block big enough for your impending new request. For large software systems, refactoring the design to mitigate the risk of a fragmented free store after it’s been coded/tested falls squarely into the expensive and ominous “stuff that’s hard to change” camp. And by saying “stuff that’s hard to change“, I mean that it may be expensive, time consuming, and technically risky to reweave your basket (case). In an attempt to verify that the accumulation of free store holes will indeed crash a program, I wrote this hole-drilling simulator: MemFrag Each time through the while loop, the code randomly allocates and deallocates 1000 chunks of memory. Each chunk is comprised of a random number of bytes between 1 and 1MB. Thus, the absolute maximum amount of memory that can be allocated/deallocated during each pass through the loop is 1 GB – half of the 2 GB RAM configured on the linux virtual box I am currently running the code on. The hole-drilling simulator has been running for days¬† – at least 5 straight. I’m patiently waiting for it to exit – and hopefully when it does so, it does so gracefully. Do you know how I can change the code to speed up the time to exit?

Note1: This post doesn’t hold a candle to Bjarne Stroustrup’s thorough explanation of the “holiness” topic in chapter 25 of “Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++, Second Edition“. If you’re a C++ programmer (beginner, intermediate, or advanced) and you haven’t read that book cover-to-cover, then… you should.

Note2: For those of you who would like to run/improve the hole-drilling simulator, here is the non-.png source code listing:


int main() {

    //create a functor for generating uniformly
    //distributed, contiguous memory chunk sizes between 1 and
    //MAX_CHUNK_SIZE bytes
    constexpr int32_t MAX_CHUNK_SIZE{1000000};
    std::default_random_engine randEng{};
    std::uniform_int_distribution distribution{
        1, MAX_CHUNK_SIZE};

    //load up a vector of NUM_CHUNKS chunks;
    //with each chunk randomly sized
    //between 1 and MAX_CHUNK_SIZE long
    constexpr int32_t NUM_CHUNKS{1000};
    std::vector chunkSizes(NUM_CHUNKS); //no init braces!
    for(auto& el : chunkSizes) {
        el = distribution(randEng);

    //declare the allocator/deallocator function
    //before calling it.
    void allocDealloc(std::vector& chunkSizes,
            std::default_random_engine& randEng);

    //loop until our free store is so "holy"
    //that we must bow down to the lord and leave
    //the premises!
    bool tooManyHoles{};
    while(!tooManyHoles) {
        try {
            allocDealloc(chunkSizes, randEng);
        catch(const std::bad_alloc&) {
            tooManyHoles = true;

    std::cout << "The Free Store Is Too "
                  << "Holy to Continue!!!"
                  << std::endl;

//the function for randomly allocating/deallocating chunks of memory
void allocDealloc(std::vector& chunkSizes,
        std::default_random_engine& randEng) {

    //create a vector for storing the dynamic pointers
    //to each allocated memory block
    std::vector<char*> handles{};

    //randomize the memory allocations and store each pointer
    //returned from the runtime memory allocator
    std::shuffle(chunkSizes.begin(), chunkSizes.end(), randEng);
    for(const auto& numBytes : chunkSizes) {
        handles.emplace_back(new char[numBytes]{}); //array of Bytes
        std::cout << "Allocated "
                      << numBytes << " Bytes" << std::endl;

    //randomize the memory deallocations
    std::shuffle(handles.begin(), handles.end(), randEng);
    for(const auto& elem : handles) {
        delete [] elem;


If you do copy/paste/change the code, please let me know what you did and what you discovered in the process.

Note3: I have an intense love/hate relationship with the C++ posts that I write. I love them because they attract the most traffic into this gawd-forsaken site and I always learn something new about the language when I compose them. I hate my C++ posts because they take for-freakin’-ever to write. The number of create/reflect/correct iterations I execute for a C++ post prior to queuing it up for publication always dwarfs the number of mental iterations I perform for a non-C++ post.

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