Posts Tagged ‘systems engineering’

Design, And THEN Development

February 15, 2016 Leave a comment

First, we have product design:


Second, we have product development:


At scale, it’s consciously planned design first, and development second: design driven development. It’s not the other way around, development driven design.

The process must match the product, not the other way around. Given a defined process, whether it’s agile-derived or “traditional“, attempting to jam fit a product development effort into a “fits all” process is a recipe for failure. Err, maybe not?

The Trees And The Forest

November 3, 2014 Leave a comment

As a result of an online Twitter exchange with Mr. Jon Quigley, I was able to purchase a copy of his and Kim Pries’s book, “Project Management Of Complex And Embedded Systems“. In exchange for a half-price deal, I promised to blog a review of the book and, thus, this is it.

quigley book

As indicated by the book title, the subject matter is all about the methods and tools commonly used by program/project managers for orchestrating large, capital-intensive, multi-disciplined, product development endeavors. Specifically, the content focuses on how the automotive industry successfully manages the development and production of products composed of thousands of electro-mechanical parts and hundreds of networked processors, some of which run safety-critical software. Even though we tend to take them for granted, when you think about it, an automobile is an extremely complex distributed system requiring lots of coordinated mental, physical, and automated, labor to produce.

The book provides comprehensive, yet introductory, coverage of the myriad of tools and processes used in the world of big project management. It’s more of a broad, sweeping, reference book than a detailed step-by-step prescription for executing a specific set of processes. It’s jam packed with lots of useful lists, figures, tables, and graphs. The end of each chapter even includes a specific “war story” experienced by one or both of the authors over their long careers.

As a long time software developer of complex embedded systems in the aerospace and defense industry, much of the book’s subject matter is familiar to me. RFPs, SOWs, WBSs, EVM, BOMs, V&V, SRRs, PDRs, CDRs, TRRs, FMEA, staged-gate phases, prime-subcontractor relationships, master schedules, multi-level approvals, quality metrics, docu-centric information exchanges, etc, are amongst the methods used to facilitate, focus, constrain, and guide end-to-end system development. Many of the chapter-ending war stories tickled my funny bone too!

For the types of projects Mssrs. Pries and Quigley target in the book, kicking off a project at sprint 0 with a self-organizing team of eight cross-functional developers and a primed product backlog of user stories just doesn’t cut it. So, if you’re a young, naive, cloistered software developer or scrum master or product owner who belittles all “traditional“, rigorous, non-agile processes, I highly recommend this book. It will give you a glimpse into a whole different world and broaden your horizons – perhaps allowing you to see both the trees and the forest.

Understood, Manageable, And Known.

February 5, 2014 Leave a comment

Our sophistication continuously puts us ahead of ourselves, creating things we are less and less capable of understanding – Nassim Taleb

It’s like clockwork. At some time downstream, just about every major weapons system development program runs into cost, schedule, and/or technical performance problems – often all three at once (D’oh!).

Despite what their champions espouse, agile and/or level 3+ CMMI-compliant processes are no match for these beasts. We simply don’t have the know how (yet?) to build them efficiently. The scope and complexity of these Leviathans overwhelms the puny methods used to build them. Pithy agile tenets like “no specialists“, “co-located team“, “no titles – we’re all developers” are simply non-applicable in huge, multi-org programs with hundreds of players.

puny processes

Being a student of big, distributed system development, I try to learn as much about the subject as I can from books, articles, news reports, and personal experience. Thanks to Twitter mate @Riczwest, the most recent troubled weapons system program that Ive discovered is the F-35 stealth fighter jet. On one side, an independent, outside-of-the-system, evaluator concludes:

The latest report by the Pentagon’s chief weapons tester, Michael Gilmore, provides a detailed critique of the F-35’s technical challenges, and focuses heavily on what it calls the “unacceptable” performance of the plane’s software… the aircraft is proving less reliable and harder to maintain than expected, and remains vulnerable to propellant fires sparked by missile strikes.

On the other side of the fence, we have the $392 billion program’s funding steward (the Air Force) and contractor (Lockheed Martin) performing damage control via the classic “we’ve got it under control” spiel:

Of course, we recognize risks still exist in the program, but they are understood and manageable. – Air Force Lieutenant General Chris Bogdan, the Pentagon’s F-35 program chief

The challenges identified are known items and the normal discoveries found in a test program of this size and complexity. – Lockheed spokesman Michael Rein

All of the risks and challenges are understood, manageable, known? WTF! Well, at least Mr. Rein got the “normal” part right.

In spite of all the drama that takes place throughout a large system development program, many (most?) of these big ticket systems do eventually get deployed and they end up serving their users well. It simply takes way more sweat, time, and money than originally estimated to get it done.


Three Degrees Of Distribution

December 19, 2012 2 comments

Behold the un-credentialed and un-esteemed BD00’s taxonomy of software-intensive system complexity:

Three Degrees

How many “M”s does the system you’re working on have? If the answer is three, should it really be two? If the answer is two, should it really be one? How do you know what number of “M”s your system design should have? When tacking on another “M” to your system design because you “have to“, what newly emergent property is the largest complexity magnifier?

Now, replace the inorganic legend at the top of the page with the following organic one and contemplate how the complexity and “success” curves are affected:

Social Legend

Too Detailed, Too Fast

October 16, 2012 Leave a comment

One of the dangers system designers continually face is diving into too much detail, too fast. Given a system problem statement, the tendency is to jump right into fine-grained function (feature) definitions so that the implementation can get staffed and started pronto. Chop-chop, aren’t you done yet?

The danger in bypassing a multi-leveled  analysis/synthesis effort and directly mapping  the problem elements into concrete, buildable functions is that important, unseen, higher level relationships can be missed – and you may pay the price for your haste with massive downstream rework and integration problems. Of course, if the system you’re building is simple enough or you’re adding on to an existing system, then the skip level approach may work out just fine.


October 2, 2012 Leave a comment

I received this e-mail ad yesterday and felt a burning need (which will not be articulated) to post it on this bogus blog:

Shhhhhh! Don’t tell anyone, but I’m a fan of the “Dummies” series because….  I am a freakin’ Dummkopf. The first book I ever studied on C++ was “C++ For Dummies“. Double-Shhh!!!!

If you stumble across a “Software Engineering For Dummies” book, please notify me. Even better, keep a lookout for a “Software Engineering For Idiots” book.

Note: Since the links in jpg images don’t work, here’s the link you want to click, if you do indeed want to click it: Systems Engineering for Dummies – Effective Application Lifecycle Management Solutions Lab. Don’t worry, I won’t tell anyone. Mum’s the word.

Bounded Solution Spaces

September 29, 2012 2 comments

As a result of an interesting e-conversation with my friend Charlie Alfred, I concocted this bogus graphic:

Given a set of requirements, the problem space is a bounded (perhaps wrongly, incompletely, or ambiguously) starting point for a solution search. I think an architect’s job is to conjure up one or more solutions that ideally engulf the entire problem space. However, the world being as messy as it is, different candidates will solve different parts of the problem – each with its own benefits and detriments. Either way, each solution candidate bounds a solution space, no?

Rules Of Thumb

September 17, 2012 Leave a comment

Look what I dug up in my archives:

Hopefully, this list may provide some aid to at least one poor, struggling soul out in the ether.

Idealized Design

July 4, 2012 2 comments

Russell Ackoff describes the process of “Idealized Design” as follows:

In this process those who formulate the vision begin by assuming that the system being redesigned was completely destroyed last night, but its environment remains exactly as it was. Then they try to design that system with which they would replace the existing system right now if they were free to replace it with any system they wanted.

The basis for this process lies in the answer to two questions. First, if one does not know what one would do if one could do whatever one wanted without constraint, how can one possibly know what to do when there are constraints? Second, if one does not know what one wants right now how can one possibly know what they will want in the future?

An idealized redesign is subject to two constraints and one design principle: technological feasibility and  operational viability, and it is required to be able to learn and adapt rapidly and effectively.

So, are you ready to blow up your system? Nah, tis better to keep the unfathomable, inefficient, ineffective beast (under continuous assault from the second law of thermo) alive and unwell. It’s easier and less risky and requires no work. And hey, we can still have fun complaining about it.

Not Applicable?

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