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Jeff Atwood, of “Coding Horror” fame, once something like “If our code didn’t use abstractions, it would be a convoluted mess“. As software projects get larger and larger, using more and more abstraction technologies is the key to creating robust and maintainable code.

Using C++ as an example language, the figure below shows the advances in abstraction technologies that have taken place over the years. Each step up the chain was designed to make large scale, domain-specific application development easier and more manageable.

The relentless advances in software technology designed to keep complexity in check is a double-edged sword. Unless one learns and practices using the new abstraction techniques in a sandbox, haphazardly incorporating them into the code can do more damage than good.

One issue is that when young developers are hired into a growing company to maintain legacy code that doesn’t incorporate the newer complexity-busting language features, they become accustomed to the old and unmaintainable style that is encrusted in the code. Because of schedule pressure and no company time allocated to experiment with and learn new language features, they shoe horn in changes without employing any of the features that would reduce the technical debt incurred over years of growing the software without any periodic refactoring. The problem is exacerbated by not having a set of regression tests in place to ensure that nothing gets broken by any major refactoring effort. Bummer.

  1. Ray
    November 30, 2009 at 8:31 am

    Hence all maintained software has a habit of turning into a mud ball. The question is whether the comments and documents are good enough where by the person who didn’t design it can maintain the abstractions or will it become an abstraction mud ball.

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